Original article was published by Tariq Massaoudi on Artificial Intelligence on Medium
Arabic Topic Classification On The Hespress News Dataset
This article is the first in a series where I’ll cover analysis of the Hespress Dataset.
According to “alexa.com” Hespress is ranked 4’th in Morrocco, it’s the biggest news site in the country and the average Moroccan spends around 6 minutes daily on the website.
The Hespress Dataset is a collection of 11K news articles labelled by topic and 300K comments with a score by the users associated to each one of them, think of the scores as likes on a Facebook post. This dataset can be used for news article classification which will be our focus in this article and for sentimental analysis of the Moroccan general opinion. You can download the Dataset using the link below:
This article is aimed for people that have a little bit of knowledge about machine learning for example what’s the difference between classification and regression, what’s cross validation. However, I’ll give a brief explanation of the steps pursued for the project.
Fortunately, our dataset contains both the articles and their labels, so we are dealing with a supervised learning problem which will make our life much easier since if wasn’t the case, we would have to manually label each article or go with an unsupervised approach.
In brief, our goal is to predict the topic of an article given it’s text. In total we have 11 topics:
- Tamazight (A Moroccan Language)
- Sport (Sport)
- Societe (Society)
- Regions (Regions)
- Politique (Politics)
- Orbites (World news)
- Medias (News from local newspapers)
- Marocains Du Monde (Moroccans of the world)
- Faits Divers (Miscellaneous)
- Economie (Economy)
- Art Et Culture (Art and culture)
Exploratory Data Analysis:
We’ll be using seaborn for data visualisation and pandas for data manipulation.
Let’s start by loading the data:
Since the data is stored in different files, each file contains data for a specific topic, we’ll have to loop over the topics and concatenate results.
import pandas as pd
topics["tamazight","sport","societe","regions","politique","orbites","medias","marocains-du-monde","faits-divers","economie","art-et-culture"]for topic in topics:
Next let’s get a sample from the data:
We can see that we have 5 columns, for this article we are only interested in the story and the topic features.
Now let’s check how much stories we have in each topic, this is extremely important for classification since if we have an imbalanced dataset i.e.(we have a lot more datapoints in a topic than the others) our model will be biased and won’t work as well. If we have this problem one common solution is to apply an under sampling or oversampling method, we won’t go over the details since it’s not in the scope of our article.
import seaborn as sns
We can see that we have almost 1000 stories per topic, our dataset is perfectly balanced.
We are dealing with Arabic text data. Our data cleaning process will consist of 2 steps:
Removing Stop Words: some words such as “و”, “كيف” have extremely high recurrence in all Arabic texts and provide no meaning that our model can use to predict. Removing them will reduce noise and let our model focus only on relevant words. To do so we will be using a list and looping over all the articles removing all the words that appear in the list.
The stop words list that I used is available on Github
from nltk.tokenize import word_tokenizefile1 = open('stopwordsarabic.txt', 'r', encoding='utf-8')
stopwords_arabic = file1.read().splitlines()+["المغرب","المغربية","المغربي"]def removeStopWords(text,stopwords):
text_tokens = word_tokenize(text)
return " ".join([word for word in text_tokens if not word in stopwords])
Removing Punctuation: For the same reason we’ll be removing punctuation, for this I’ve used a Regex expression.
from nltk.tokenize import RegexpTokenizer
tokenizer = RegexpTokenizer(r'\w+')
return " ".join(tokenizer.tokenize(text))
Drawing a WordCloud:
Let’s have some fun, we’re going to be drawing a Word Cloud off all the stories in our DataSet using the python “WordCloud” library
Before doing so there’s some extra steps needed that are specific for Arabic, to learn more about them visit this link.
from bidi.algorithm import get_display
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inlinedef preprocessText(text,stopwords,wordcloud=False):
Since this dataset contains recent news articles we see “كورونا” (coronavirus) as a recurring word. There’s also “الامازيغية” which is a major language in Morocco, “محمد” which is the most popular name in Morocco and is also the name of the King of Morocco and “الحكومة” which means the government.
Machine learning models are in their essence mathematical equations and can’t understand text, so before running our models we need to transform our text to numbers, there’s multiple approaches to do this let’s discover the 2 most popular ones.
This one is very simple, every columns represents a word from the entire stories corpus, and every row represents a story, the cell values are the frequency in which a word appears in the story!
TF-IDF stands for “Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency” it uses a slightly more complicated approach which will penalize common words that occur in multiple documents.
We will be using TF-IDF since it in most cases it yields better performance!
from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfVectorizer#Clean the stories
stories["storyClean"]=stories["story"].apply(lambda s: preprocessText(s,stopwords_arabic))#Vectorize the storiesvectorizer = TfidfVectorizer()
X = vectorizer.fit_transform(stories["storyClean"])
We will try the following models:
- Random Forest
- Logistic Regression
- Multinomial Naïve Bayes
We will run the data through each model and use the accuracy which is the ratio of correct predictions and total datapoints as our metric, for more accurate results we have used cross validation with 5 folds for our scoring then we will be plotting the results.
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.metrics import accuracy_score
from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_score
import numpy as np
from sklearn.metrics import classification_report
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)
modelName = type(model).__name__
score=np.mean(cross_val_score(model, X, y, cv=5))
Our best model is SDGClassifier with an accuracy of 87 %
Now that we got a working model let’s try to understand a bit more what’s happening, for that we will be answering two questions:
- What topics does our model struggle with?
- What words are most influential in predicting different topics?
For the first questions we can check the classification report of our best model:
We are predicting “Sport”, “Art”, “Medias”, “Tamazight” with an extremely high accuracy. We are struggling the most with “orbites” (world news), “societe” (Society) this might be because these two are more general and broad topics.
To answer the second question, we will be using a useful property of logistic regression, we can use the weights as a measure of the importance of the words in each model. “ELI5” a python library makes it easy to do that:
We can see that most of the words make sense and correspond to the theme of the topic, for example for “Art” the top words are: “Artist”, “Film”,” Culture”, ”Book”.
In this article we’ve gone through all the steps required to design a text classification system for Arabic from Data Exploration to Model Interpretation. However, we can still improve our accuracy by tuning the hyperparameters.
In the next article we’ll try to make sense of the comments on each article using Sentimental Analysis.
if you managed to get here Congratulations. Thanks for reading, I hope you’ve enjoyed the article. For personal contact or discussion, feel free to reach out to me on LinkedIn.