Case Study: silicon excellence + system & algorithm excellence = solution excellence

Original article was published on Artificial Intelligence on Medium

Abstract

When Nextchip set out to find the best partner to maximize the AI capabilities of the next generation of their award-winning Apache4 visionbased edge processor, they not only looked to established hardware IP leaders, but also they asked their most trusted customers. The result was a unique collaboration with an unlikely source of hardware IP: an innovative young European software and systems supplier with a passion for making AI hardware platforms for autonomous driving much better.

When disrupting a global market, together is better

To paraphrase the famous poet John Donne: no man — or company — is an island. The sheer complexity of the task to create safe and reliable yet cost-effective autonomous vehicles has led everyone in the automotive industry — from the largest OEMs and leading Tier1s, through to industry disrupters such as Tesla — to acknowledge that collaboration is essential. No one company, no matter how large or whatever the budget, has all the skills and know-how to create autonomous vehicles by themselves, nor the components and software needed to assemble and control them. Autonomous vehicles will be built through many collaborations and partnerships between companies whose skills complement one another, resulting in a more compelling product for their mutual customers. In this white paper, we will explore the path taken by an innovative, well-established Korea-based specialist silicon and algorithm supplier to create something truly unique. We will see how by looking beyond the requirements of the hardware itself to the solutions their customers needed, Nextchip found in AImotiveTM a unique and unexpected supplier of industry-leading hardware IP.

Building on strong foundations

Over the past 25 years, Nextchip has built an exceptional reputation for excellent hardware, algorithms and chip supply for embedded system. Their deep knowledge of image signal processing, computer vision algorithms, codecs and low-power, high-performance engineering know-how enabled them to create a series of successful chips targeting the fast-growing video and camera markets.

By focusing on imaging, Nextchip have created a series of highly specialized digital and analogue technologies, combined with well-engineered processing engines. These have been combined with advanced hardware IP from industry leaders such as Arm and Synopsys to create a wide range of highly optimized chips, ISP (Image Signal Processor) to mixed signal ASIC, transmission device and SoCs.

Several technologies stand out as key differentiators in Nextchip’s capabilities:

ISP: the sophisticated capabilities of the Nextchip ISP (Image Signal Processor) have won them wide acclaim. Their ISPs have appeared both as dedicated ISP chips, and integrated into advanced SoCs

AHD: their unique analogue high-speed data transmission technology builds on Nextchip’s expertise in vision systems, combined with advanced analogue and digital engineering capabilities

CV Algorithms: through their in-house development of advanced CV (Computer Vision) algorithms for challenging tasks such as ISP related algorithms like AE, AWB, HDR, LFM and ADAS related algorithms like pedestrian detection, vehicle detection, lane detection and moving object demonstrates their understanding of how to bring together advanced systems, hardware and software engineering

The culmination of their developments is Apache4: a complete IEP (Imaging Edge Processor) targeting primarily automotive ADAS applications. This award-winning design combines their advanced ISP with high performance Arm-based CPUs and powerful DSPs to deliver a compelling application platform.

The next step: delivering AI capabilities to cost-sensitive markets

When Nextchip saw the success and enthusiastic industry reception for Apache4, they knew they were on to a winner. They focused more of their broad engineering expertise to figuring out how to make the next generation better. How much more processing power was needed? What sort of processors? And what was the application that was going to drive their market?

AImotive drives its cars daily on 3 continents

The answer to the last question was clear: AI. Almost every customer they visited wanted to know their plans to introduce powerful AI capabilities into their future products. But there were challenges: how much AI performance? What should the capabilities be? How do you balance high performance with flexibility and power consumption? Nextchip quickly realized they needed help to identify the right balance of performance and capabilities for their markets. They needed a partner who understood not only silicon, but could talk about the actual AI application itself to their customers. That was well beyond their capabilities.

The search begins

In order to answer some of these questions, Nextchip started by talking to all of their existing hardware IP suppliers. They all had IP products — how should they choose the best one when they didn’t fully understand the application, nor AI?

When Nextchip spoke to their customers, they found that they had already spoken to many of the well-known hardware IP providers — and they all had the same concerns: Do these vendors really understand the specific challenges of automotive AI inference? Do they understand the challenges of executing demanding AI for HD camera-based computer vision? Are they focused on the inference market, or are they trying to address training as well for NNs? Indeed aren’t they claiming their solution will do any form of AI, without really understanding what that means? Are they able to produce a solution fully optimized for automotive, vision-first safety-critical AI inference? And can I believe any of the numbers being claimed for realistic automotive applications?

AS THE NUMBER OF QUESTIONS GREW, THE TRUST IN THE ANSWERS DROPPED: TOO MANY ANSWERS WERE GENERIC, NOT UNDERSTANDING THE UNIQUE NEEDS OF AUTOMOTIVE.

And too many numbers were being produced using benchmarks that were simply not relevant for automotive grade, low-latency camera-based systems. Nextchip and its customers began to realize that automotive vision-based AI using high-resolution image sensors is a highly specialized area that very few people understood. They needed more than hardware IP — they needed answers they could believe in.

After an extensive search, they found a unique company based in Europe that combined extensive know-how in AI and embedded software for automotive applications with a unique approach to hardware IP for tackling one of the most compute-intensive tasks for autonomous driving: DNNs (Deep Neural Networks) for realtime inference.

This company’s answers to their questions combined, for the first time, an in-depth understanding of the challenges of delivering automotive grade camera-based AI systems for volume production, with industry-leading NN design capabilities honed solely for the automotive ADAS market. Furthermore, they had also designed hardware IP intended to solve what they also saw was a significant hole in the market for silicon platforms capable of executing these demanding, high performance AI applications hour after hour, day after day, in extreme operating conditions meeting the most demanding automotive safety and reliability standards such as ISO26262.

That company was AImotive Kft.

When Nextchip started asking questions about AImotive to their industry colleagues and to their customers, they were surprised to hear how well known AImotive was, and how respected their automotive AI technologies had become.

They said: “if you can deliver their capabilities in your chips, we will trust your chips because we know that this company understands the real complexities and challenges delivering camera-based automotive AI”.

The search was over — Nextchip had found its new strategic partner.

An unusual supplier of hardware IP: a software company!

AImotive Kft. — a fast-growing, highly successful autonomous driving software and systems company based in Budapest, Hungary — is a unique technology powerhouse. It brings together under one roof AI, NN, embedded hardware and software and simulation expertise to create a broad, highly integrated yet modular technology portfolio for autonomous vehicles. Their fleet of test vehicles is a regular sight on roads in the US, Europe and Japan, and their expertise is often sought after in conferences around the world dedicated to the latest in autonomous vehicles technologies. It is AImotive’s expertise in all these areas, plus their strong focus on camera-based solutions, that made AImotive’s aiWareTM NN acceleration hardware IP of great interest to Nextchip.

Executives explain details of AImotive’s test fleet to Nextchip engineers

When Nextchip studied AImotive in detail, it found a number of key attributes that made it a highly desirable partner:

  • Respected in the automotive AI industry in every major region
  • Well-funded with world-class strategic and financial investors and strong leadership
  • a strong, stable and highly qualified engineering team including a significant number of PhD-qualified AI algorithm experts
  • In-depth knowledge of applying the latest AI and CV techniques to cameras for automotive applications in autonomous driving, with extensive know-how and patents in algorithms as well as NN design
  • Significant experience building and testing a range of cars running their complete AI software stacks in four locations (US, Hungary, Tokyo and France)
  • Hands-on experience porting NN and other AI algorithms to a range of silicon platforms including Intel, Nvidia, Renesas and Mediatek SoCs
  • Hardware IP designed with the sole purpose of accelerating NNs for real-time low latency inference for automotive camera (and other high-resolution) sensors in an ASIL B and higher certifiable environment

This combination of skills was unique. Nextchip quickly realized that by being able to deliver AImotive’s unique portfolio of expertise and technologies to its customers as part of its new Apache5 SoC, it had a unique and compelling product offering that automotive OEMs and Tier1s would find both innovative and refreshing. Their customers could engage with Nextchip together with their new partner AImotive in ways few other vendors could offer. AImotive spoke their customers’ language!

Creating the best product

When Nextchip started specifying their next generation Apache5 IEP for automotive camera applications, they recognized that already car makers were moving away from the high end “revolutionary” L4/L5 fully autonomous vehicles to more “evolutionary” L2/L2+/L3 solutions. As a volume chip supplier to a wide range of automotive OEMs and Tier1s, Nextchip saw that high efficiency was essential when executing realtime algorithms for applications such as smart rear vision, valet parking or highway driving. Only by understanding the actual NNs used in automotive environments — not just public NN benchmarks developed many years ago — could Nextchip demonstrate that its highly optimized chip could do the job. AImotive answered that requirement by providing that expertise alongside a recognized award-winning* industry-leading NN hardware acceleration IP core.

AImotive was able to engage with Nextchip’s customers to help explain why the unique combination of features in the NN accelerator on Apache5 would mean their application could achieve high performance at low power consumption. Being able to explain to Nextchip’s customers how vision-based NN algorithms can be optimized for Apache5 was key to winning new business. And by demonstrating that Nextchip’s customers would have access to AImotive’s special skills needed to help them port and optimize new custom NNs to Apache5, AImotive enabled Nextchip to offer a level of technical support not available from other chip vendors.

Efficiency: the key to success

With any chip, the hardware resources are fixed. Unlike software, once the chip has been manufactured the functionality cannot be changed except by the software executing on it. Therefore, it is crucial that the hardware is sufficiently flexible to accommodate a wide range of applications, and to execute these at the highest possible efficiency.

Efficiency is all about what percentage of the hardware resources are being used to do useful work. This is vital for system integrators, since for more advanced silicon manufacturing processes such as that used by Nextchip for Apache5 suffer from a phenomenon known as “leakage”. This means that even if a section of logic is doing nothing, it still consumes a significant amount of power as long as it is switched on. So if the hardware is consuming power, we need to make sure it is doing something useful for as much of the time as possible.

However getting answers about how efficient any hardware will be when executing your application is much harder than you think. System integrators usually select chips based on their claimed performance metrics, using well-known industry benchmarks. These are often designed to measure performance of specific features, which might not be relevant to your application. Not delivering the sustained performance claimed by these metrics can waste valuable engineering effort, either during evaluation (for example analyzing results from the wrong benchmarks), or during design of the product itself (for example only discovering shortfalls in performance too late in the design process).

The aiWare3P NN accelerator used in Nextchip’s Apache5 has been designed from the ground up for maximum efficiency for vision-based NN applications. It is particularly efficient for large input sizes needed for the latest generation of 1Mpixel–2Mpixel and higher resolution cameras being used for automotive applications. Indeed, in benchmarks published by AImotive, aiWare delivers up to 96% efficiency in sustained execution of some vision applications. This means no power is wasted, resulting in lower overall power consumption and higher sustained performance for day in, day out operation.