Deep Computer Vision Using CNN (Part-2)

Original article was published by Ravi Varma Thotakura on Artificial Intelligence on Medium


CNN Architectures

Typical CNN architectures stack a few convolutional layers (each one generally followed by a ReLU layer), then a pooling layer, then another few convolutional layers (+ReLU), then another pooling layer, and so on. The image gets smaller and smaller as it progresses through the network, but it also typically gets deeper and deeper (i.e., with more feature maps) thanks to the convolutional layers (see below image). At the top of the stack, a regular feedforward neural network is added, composed of a few fully connected layers (+ReLUs), and the final layer outputs the prediction (e.g., a softmax layer that outputs estimated class probabilities).

Typical CNN architecture

Tip: A common mistake is to use convolution kernels that are too large. For example, instead of using a convolutional layer with a 5 × 5 kernel, it is generally preferable to stack two layers with 3 × 3 kernels: it will use less parameters and require less computations, and it will usually perform better. One exception to this recommendation is for the first convolutional layer: it can typically have a large kernel (e.g., 5 × 5), usually with stride of 2 or more: this will reduce the spatial dimension of the image without losing too much information, and since the input image only has 3 channels in general, it will not be too costly.

Here is how you can implement a simple CNN to tackle the fashion MNIST dataset

  • In this code, we start by using the partial() function to define a thin wrapper around the Conv2D class, called DefaultConv2D: it simply avoids having to repeat the same hyperparameter values over and over again.
  • The first layer uses a large kernel size, but no stride because the input images are not very large. It also sets input_shape=[28, 28, 1], which means the images are 28 × 28 pixels, with a single color channel (i.e., grayscale).
  • Next, we have a max pooling layer, which divides each spatial dimension by a factor of two (since pool_size=2).
  • Then we repeat the same structure twice: two convolutional layers followed by a max pooling layer. For larger images, we could repeat this structure several times (the number of repetitions is a hyperparameter you can tune).
  • Note that the number of filters grows as we climb up the CNN towards the output layer (it is initially 64, then 128, then 256): it makes sense for it to grow, since the number of low level features is often fairly low (e.g., small circles, horizontal lines, etc.), but there are many different ways to combine them into higher level features. It is a common practice to double the number of filters after each pooling layer: since a pooling layer divides each spatial dimension by a factor of 2, we can afford doubling the number of feature maps in the next layer, without fear of exploding the number of parameters, memory usage, or computational load.
  • Next is the fully connected network, composed of 2 hidden dense layers and a dense output layer. Note that we must flatten its inputs, since a dense network expects a 1D array of features for each instance. We also add two dropout layers, with a dropout rate of 50% each, to reduce overfitting.

This CNN reaches over 92% accuracy on the test set. It’s not the state of the art, but it is pretty good, and clearly much better than what we achieved with dense networks in Image Classifier article.

Over the years, variants of this fundamental architecture have been developed, leading to amazing advances in the field. A good measure of this progress is the error rate in competitions such as the ILSVRC ImageNet challenge. In this competition the top-5 error rate for image classification fell from over 26% to less than 2.3% in just six years. The top-five error rate is the number of test images for which the system’s top 5 predictions did not include the correct answer. The images are large (256 pixels high) and there are 1,000 classes, some of which are really subtle (try distinguishing 120 dog breeds). Looking at the evolution of the winning entries is a good way to understand how CNNs work.

We will first look at the classical LeNet-5 architecture (1998), then three of the winners of the ILSVRC challenge: AlexNet (2012), GoogLeNet (2014), and ResNet (2015).

LeNet-5

The LeNet-5 architecture is perhaps the most widely known CNN architecture. As mentioned earlier, it was created by Yann LeCun in 1998 and widely used for handwritten digit recognition (MNIST). It is composed of the layers shown in below table.

LeNet-5 architecture

There are a few extra details to be noted:

  • MNIST images are 28 × 28 pixels, but they are zero-padded to 32 × 32 pixels and normalized before being fed to the network. The rest of the network does not use any padding, which is why the size keeps shrinking as the image progresses through the network.
  • The average pooling layers are slightly more complex than usual: each neuron computes the mean of its inputs, then multiplies the result by a learnable coefficient (one per map) and adds a learnable bias term (again, one per map), then finally applies the activation function.
  • Most neurons in C3 maps are connected to neurons in only three or four S2 maps (instead of all six S2 maps).
  • The output layer is a bit special: instead of computing the matrix multiplication of the inputs and the weight vector, each neuron outputs the square of the Euclidean distance between its input vector and its weight vector. Each output measures how much the image belongs to a particular digit class. The cross entropy cost function is now preferred, as it penalizes bad predictions much more, producing larger gradients and converging faster.

AlexNet

The AlexNet CNN architecture won the 2012 ImageNet ILSVRC challenge by a large margin: it achieved 17% top-5 error rate while the second best achieved only 26%! It was developed by Alex Krizhevsky, Ilya Sutskever, and Geoffrey Hinton. It is quite similar to LeNet-5, only much larger and deeper, and it was the first to stack convolutional layers directly on top of each other, instead of stacking a pooling layer on top of each convolutional layer. Below table presents this architecture.

AlexNet architecture

To reduce overfitting, the authors used two regularization techniques: first they applied dropout with a 50% dropout rate during training to the outputs of layers F8 and F9. Second, they performed data augmentation by randomly shifting the training images by various offsets, flipping them horizontally, and changing the lighting conditions.

Data Augmentation

Data augmentation artificially increases the size of the training set by generating many realistic variants of each training instance. This reduces overfitting, making this a regularization technique. The generated instances should be as realistic as possible: ideally, given an image from the augmented training set, a human should not be able to tell whether it was augmented or not. Moreover, simply adding white noise will not help; the modifications should be learnable (white noise is not).

For example, you can slightly shift, rotate, and resize every picture in the training set by various amounts and add the resulting pictures to the training set (see below image). This forces the model to be more tolerant to variations in the position, orientation, and size of the objects in the pictures. If you want the model to be more tolerant to different lighting conditions, you can similarly generate many images with various contrasts. In general, you can also flip the pictures horizontally (except for text, and other non-symmetrical objects). By combining these transformations you can greatly increase the size of your training set.

Generating new training instances from existing ones

AlexNet also uses a competitive normalization step immediately after the ReLU step of layers C1 and C3, called local response normalization. The most strongly activated neurons inhibit other neurons located at the same position in neighboring feature maps (such competitive activation has been observed in biological neurons). This encourages different feature maps to specialize, pushing them apart and forcing them to explore a wider range of features, ultimately improving generalization. Equation-1 shows how to apply LRN.

Equation-1. Local response normalization

Equation-1
  • bi is the normalized output of the neuron located in feature map i, at some row u and column v (note that in this equation we consider only neurons located at this row and column, so u and v are not shown).
  • ai is the activation of that neuron after the ReLU step, but before normalization.
  • k, α, β, and r are hyperparameters. k is called the bias, and r is called the depth radius.
  • fn is the number of feature maps.

For example, if r = 2 and a neuron has a strong activation, it will inhibit the activation of the neurons located in the feature maps immediately above and below its own.

In AlexNet, the hyperparameters are set as follows: r = 2, α = 0.00002, β = 0.75, and k = 1. This step can be implemented using the tf.nn.local_response_normalization() function (which you can wrap in a Lambda layer if you want to use it in a Keras model).

A variant of AlexNet called ZF Net was developed by Matthew Zeiler and Rob Fergus and won the 2013 ILSVRC challenge. It is essentially AlexNet with a few tweaked hyperparameters (number of feature maps, kernel size, stride, etc.).

GoogLeNet

The GoogLeNet architecture was developed by Christian Szegedy from Google Research, and it won the ILSVRC 2014 challenge by pushing the top-5 error rate below 7%. This great performance came in large part from the fact that the network was much deeper than previous CNNs (see below GoogLeNet architecture image). This was made possible by sub-networks called inception modules, which allow GoogLeNet to use parameters much more efficiently than previous architectures: GoogLeNet actually has 10 times fewer parameters than AlexNet (roughly 6 million instead of 60 million).

Below image shows the architecture of an inception module. The notation “3 × 3 + 1(S)” means that the layer uses a 3 × 3 kernel, stride 1, and SAME padding. The input signal is first copied and fed to four different layers. All convolutional layers use the ReLU activation function. Note that the second set of convolutional layers uses different kernel sizes (1 × 1, 3 × 3, and 5 × 5), allowing them to capture patterns at different scales. Also note that every single layer uses a stride of 1 and SAME padding (even the max pooling layer), so their outputs all have the same height and width as their inputs. This makes it possible to concatenate all the outputs along the depth dimension in the final depth concat layer (i.e., stack the feature maps from all four top convolutional layers). This concatenation layer can be implemented in TensorFlow using the tf.concat() operation, with axis=3 (axis 3 is the depth).

Inception module

You may wonder why inception modules have convolutional layers with 1 × 1 kernels. Surely these layers cannot capture any features since they look at only one pixel at a time? In fact, these layers serve three purposes:

  • First, although they cannot capture spatial patterns, they can capture patterns along the depth dimension.
  • Second, they are configured to output fewer feature maps than their inputs, so they serve as bottleneck layers, meaning they reduce dimensionality. This cuts the computational cost and the number of parameters, speeding up training and improving generalization.
  • Lastly, each pair of convolutional layers ([1 × 1, 3 × 3] and [1 × 1, 5 × 5]) acts like a single, powerful convolutional layer, capable of capturing more complex patterns. Indeed, instead of sweeping a simple linear classifier across the image (as a single convolutional layer does), this pair of convolutional layers sweeps a two layer neural network across the image.

In short, you can think of the whole inception module as a convolutional layer on steroids, able to output feature maps that capture complex patterns at various scales.

Note: The number of convolutional kernels for each convolutional layer is a hyperparameter. Unfortunately, this means that you have six more hyperparameters to tweak for every inception layer you add.

Now let’s look at the architecture of the GoogLeNet CNN (see below image). The number of feature maps output by each convolutional layer and each pooling layer is shown before the kernel size. The architecture is so deep that it has to be represented in three columns, but GoogLeNet is actually one tall stack, including nine inception modules (the boxes with the spinning tops). The six numbers in the inception modules represent the number of feature maps output by each convolutional layer in the module (in the same order as in above Inception module image). Note that all the convolutional layers use the ReLU activation function.

GoogLeNet architecture

Let’s go through this network:

  • The first two layers divide the image’s height and width by 4 (so its area is divided by 16), to reduce the computational load. The first layer uses a large kernel size, so that much of the information is still preserved.
  • Then the local response normalization layer ensures that the previous layers learn a wide variety of features (as discussed earlier).
  • Two convolutional layers follow, where the first acts like a bottleneck layer. As explained earlier, you can think of this pair as a single smarter convolutional layer.
  • Again, a local response normalization layer ensures that the previous layers capture a wide variety of patterns.
  • Next a max pooling layer reduces the image height and width by 2, again to speed up computations.
  • Then comes the tall stack of nine inception modules, interleaved with a couple max pooling layers to reduce dimensionality and speed up the net.
  • Next, the global average pooling layer simply outputs the mean of each feature map: this drops any remaining spatial information, which is fine since there was not much spatial information left at that point. Indeed, GoogLeNet input images are typically expected to be 224 × 224 pixels, so after 5 max pooling layers, each dividing the height and width by 2, the feature maps are down to 7 × 7. Moreover, it is a classification task, not localization, so it does not matter where the object is. Thanks to the dimensionality reduction brought by this layer, there is no need to have several fully connected layers at the top of the CNN (like in AlexNet), and this considerably reduces the number of parameters in the network and limits the risk of overfitting.
  • The last layers are self-explanatory: dropout for regularization, then a fully connected layer with 1,000 units, since there are a 1,000 classes, and a softmax activation function to output estimated class probabilities.

This diagram is slightly simplified: the original GoogLeNet architecture also included two auxiliary classifiers plugged on top of the third and sixth inception modules. They were both composed of one average pooling layer, one convolutional layer, two fully connected layers, and a softmax activation layer. During training, their loss (scaled down by 70%) was added to the overall loss. The goal was to fight the vanishing gradients problem and regularize the network. However, it was later shown that their effect was relatively minor.

Several variants of the GoogLeNet architecture were later proposed by Google researchers, including Inception-v3 and Inception-v4, using slightly different inception modules, and reaching even better performance.

VGGNet

The runner up in the ILSVRC 2014 challenge was VGGNet, developed by K. Simonyan and A. Zisserman. It had a very simple and classical architecture, with 2 or 3 convolutional layers, a pooling layer, then again 2 or 3 convolutional layers, a pooling layer, and so on (with a total of just 16 convolutional layers), plus a final dense network with 2 hidden layers and the output layer. It used only 3 × 3 filters, but many filters.

ResNet

The ILSVRC 2015 challenge was won using a Residual Network (or ResNet), developed by Kaiming, which delivered an astounding top-5 error rate under 3.6%, using an extremely deep CNN composed of 152 layers. It confirmed the general trend: models are getting deeper and deeper, with fewer and fewer parameters. The key to being able to train such a deep network is to use skip connections (also called shortcut connections): the signal feeding into a layer is also added to the output of a layer located a bit higher up the stack. Let’s see why this is useful.

When training a neural network, the goal is to make it model a target function h(x). If you add the input x to the output of the network (i.e., you add a skip connection), then the network will be forced to model f(x) = h(x) — x rather than h(x). This is called residual learning (see below image).

Residual learning

When you initialize a regular neural network, its weights are close to zero, so the network just outputs values close to zero. If you add a skip connection, the resulting network just outputs a copy of its inputs; in other words, it initially models the identity function. If the target function is fairly close to the identity function (which is often the case), this will speed up training considerably.

Moreover, if you add many skip connections, the network can start making progress even if several layers have not started learning yet (see below image). Thanks to skip connections, the signal can easily make its way across the whole network. The deep residual network can be seen as a stack of residual units, where each residual unit is a small neural network with a skip connection.

Regular deep neural network (left) and deep residual network (right)

Now let’s look at ResNet’s architecture (see below image). It is actually surprisingly simple. It starts and ends exactly like GoogLeNet (except without a dropout layer), and in between is just a very deep stack of simple residual units. Each residual unit is composed of two convolutional layers (and no pooling layer!), with Batch Normalization (BN) and ReLU activation, using 3 × 3 kernels and preserving spatial dimensions (stride 1, SAME padding).

ResNet architecture

Note that the number of feature maps is doubled every few residual units, at the same time as their height and width are halved (using a convolutional layer with stride 2). When this happens the inputs cannot be added directly to the outputs of the residual unit since they don’t have the same shape (for example, this problem affects the skip connection represented by the dashed arrow in above image). To solve this problem, the inputs are passed through a 1 × 1 convolutional layer with stride 2 and the right number of output feature maps (see below image).

Skip connection when changing feature map size and depth

ResNet-34 is the ResNet with 34 layers (only counting the convolutional layers and the fully connected layer) containing three residual units that output 64 feature maps, 4 RUs with 128 maps, 6 RUs with 256 maps, and 3 RUs with 512 maps. We will implement this architecture later in this article.

ResNets deeper than that, such as ResNet-152, use slightly different residual units. Instead of two 3 × 3 convolutional layers with (say) 256 feature maps, they use three convolutional layers: first a 1 × 1 convolutional layer with just 64 feature maps (4 times less), which acts as a bottleneck layer (as discussed already), then a 3 × 3 layer with 64 feature maps, and finally another 1 × 1 convolutional layer with 256 feature maps (4 times 64) that restores the original depth. ResNet-152 contains three such RUs that output 256 maps, then 8 RUs with 512 maps, a whopping 36 RUs with 1,024 maps, and finally 3 RUs with 2,048 maps.

Note: Google’s Inception-v416 architecture merged the ideas of GoogLe‐Net and ResNet and achieved close to 3% top-5 error rate on ImageNet classification.

Xception

Another variant of the GoogLeNet architecture is also worth noting: Xception (which stands for Extreme Inception) was proposed in 2016 by François Chollet (the author of Keras), and it significantly outperformed Inception-v3 on a huge vision task (350 million images and 17,000 classes). Just like Inception-v4, it also merges the ideas of GoogLeNet and ResNet, but it replaces the inception modules with a special type of layer called a depthwise separable convolution (or separable convolution for short). These layers had been used before in some CNN architectures, but they were not as central as in the Xception architecture. While a regular convolutional layer uses filters that try to simultaneously capture spatial patterns (e.g., an oval) and cross-channel patterns (e.g., mouth + nose + eyes = face), a separable convolutional layer makes the strong assumption that spatial patterns and cross-channel patterns can be modeled separately (see below image). Thus, it is composed of two parts: the first part applies a single spatial filter for each input feature map, then the second part looks exclusively for cross-channel patterns — it is just a regular convolutional layer with 1 × 1 filters.

Depthwise Separable Convolutional Layer

Since separable convolutional layers only have one spatial filter per input channel, you should avoid using them after layers that have too few channels, such as the input layer (granted, that’s what above image represents, but it is just for illustration purposes). For this reason, the Xception architecture starts with 2 regular convolutional layers, but then the rest of the architecture uses only separable convolutions (34 in all), plus a few max pooling layers and the usual final layers (a global average pooling layer, and a dense output layer).

You might wonder why Xception is considered a variant of GoogLeNet, since it contains no inception module at all? Well, as we discussed earlier, an Inception module contains convolutional layers with 1 × 1 filters: these look exclusively for cross-channel patterns. However, the convolution layers that sit on top of them are regular convolutional layers that look both for spatial and cross-channel patterns. So you can think of an Inception module as an intermediate between a regular convolutional layer (which considers spatial patterns and cross-channel patterns jointly) and a separable convolutional layer (which considers them separately). In practice, it seems that separable convolutions generally perform better.

Tip: Separable convolutions use less parameters, less memory and less computations than regular convolutional layers, and in general they even perform better, so you should consider using them by default (except after layers with few channels).

The ILSVRC 2016 challenge was won by the CUImage team from the Chinese University of Hong Kong. They used an ensemble of many different techniques, including a sophisticated object-detection system called GBD-Net19, to achieve a top-5 error rate below 3%. Although this result is unquestionably impressive, the complexity of the solution contrasted with the simplicity of ResNets. Moreover, one year later another fairly simple architecture performed even better, as we will see now.

SENet

The winning architecture in the ILSVRC 2017 challenge was the Squeeze-and- Excitation Network (SENet). This architecture extends existing architectures such as inception networks or ResNets, and boosts their performance. This allowed SENet to win the competition with an astonishing 2.25% top-5 error rate! The extended versions of inception networks and ResNet are called SE-Inception and SE-ResNet respectively. The boost comes from the fact that a SENet adds a small neural network, called a SE Block, to every unit in the original architecture (i.e., every inception module or every residual unit), as shown in below image.

SE-Inception Module (left) and SE-ResNet Unit (right)

A SE Block analyzes the output of the unit it is attached to, focusing exclusively on the depth dimension (it does not look for any spatial pattern), and it learns which features are usually most active together. It then uses this information to recalibrate the feature maps, as shown in below image. For example, a SE Block may learn that mouths, noses and eyes usually appear together in pictures: if you see a mouth and a nose, you should expect to see eyes as well. So if a SE Block sees a strong activation in the mouth and nose feature maps, but only mild activation in the eye feature map, it will boost the eye feature map (more accurately, it will reduce irrelevant feature maps). If the eyes were somewhat confused with something else, this feature map recalibration will help resolve the ambiguity.

An SE Block Performs Feature Map Recalibration

A SE Block is composed of just 3 layers: a global average pooling layer, a hidden dense layer using the ReLU activation function, and a dense output layer using the sigmoid activation function (see below image):

SE Block Architecture

As earlier, the global average pooling layer computes the mean activation for each feature map: for example, if it’s input contains 256 feature maps, it will output 256 numbers representing the overall level of response for each filter. The next layer is where the “squeeze” happens: this layer has much less than 256 neurons, typically 16 times less than the number of feature maps (e.g., 16 neurons), so the 256 numbers get compressed into a small vector (e.g., 16 dimensional). This is a low-dimensional vector representation (i.e., an embedding) of the distribution of feature responses. This bottleneck step forces the SE Block to learn a general representation of the feature combinations. Finally, the output layer takes the embedding and outputs a recalibration vector containing one number per feature map (e.g., 256), each between 0 and 1. The feature maps are then multiplied by this recalibration vector, so irrelevant features (with a low recalibration score) get scaled down while relevant features (with a recalibration score close to 1) are left alone.

Implementing a ResNet-34 CNN Using Keras

Most CNN architectures described so far are fairly straightforward to implement (although generally you would load a pretrained network instead, as we will see). To illustrate the process, let’s implement a ResNet-34 from scratch using Keras. First, let’s create a “ResidualUnit” layer:

As you can see, this code matches above “Skip connection when changing feature map size and depth” image pretty closely. In the constructor, we create all the layers we will need: the main layers are the ones on the right side of the diagram, and the skip layers are the ones on the left (only needed if the stride is greater than 1). Then in the call() method, we simply make the inputs go through the main layers, and the skip layers (if any), then we add both outputs and we apply the activation function.

Next, we can build the ResNet-34 simply using a Sequential model, since it is really just a long sequence of layers (we can treat each residual unit as a single layer now that we have the ResidualUnit class):

The only slightly tricky part in this code is the loop that adds the ResidualUnit layers to the model: as explained earlier, the first 3 RUs have 64 filters, then the next 4 RUs have 128 filters, and so on. We then set the strides to 1 when the number of filters is the same as in the previous RU, or else we set it to 2. Then we add the ResidualUnit, and finally we update prev_filters.

It is quite amazing that in less than 40 lines of code, we can build the model that won the ILSVRC 2015 challenge! It demonstrates both the elegance of the ResNet model, and the expressiveness of the Keras API. Implementing the other CNN architectures is not much harder. However, Keras comes with several of these architectures built in, so why not use them instead?

Using Pretrained Models From Keras

In general, you won’t have to implement standard models like GoogLeNet or ResNet manually, since pretrained networks are readily available with a single line of code, in the keras.applications package. For example:

That’s all! This will create a ResNet-50 model and download weights pretrained on the ImageNet dataset. To use it, you first need to ensure that the images have the right size. A ResNet-50 model expects 224 × 224 images (other models may expect other sizes, such as 299 × 299), so let’s use TensorFlow’s tf.image.resize() function to resize the images we loaded earlier:

Note: The tf.image.resize() will not preserve the aspect ratio. If this is a problem, you can try cropping the images to the appropriate aspect ratio before resizing. Both operations can be done in one shot with tf.image.crop_and_resize().

The pretrained models assume that the images are preprocessed in a specific way. In some cases they may expect the inputs to be scaled from 0 to 1, or -1 to 1, and so on. Each model provides a preprocess_input() function that you can use to preprocess your images. These functions assume that the pixel values range from 0 to 255, so we must multiply them by 255 (since earlier we scaled them to the 0–1 range):

Now we can use the pretrained model to make predictions:

As usual, the output Y_proba is a matrix with one row per image and one column per class (in this case, there are 1,000 classes). If you want to display the top K predictions, including the class name and the estimated probability of each predicted class, you can use the decode_predictions() function. For each image, it returns an array containing the top K predictions, where each prediction is represented as an array containing the class identifier, its name and the corresponding confidence score:

The correct classes (monastery and daisy) appear in the top 3 results for both images. That’s pretty good considering that the model had to choose among 1,000 classes.

As you can see, it is very easy to create a pretty good image classifier using a pretrained model. Other vision models are available in keras.applications, including several ResNet variants, GoogLeNet variants like InceptionV3 and Xception, VGGNet variants, MobileNet and MobileNetV2 (lightweight models for use in mobile applications), and more.

But what if you want to use an image classifier for classes of images that are not part of ImageNet? In that case, you may still benefit from the pretrained models to perform transfer learning.

Pretrained Models for Transfer Learning

If you want to build an image classifier, but you do not have enough training data, then it is often a good idea to reuse the lower layers of a pretrained model, as we discussed in previous article. For example, let’s train a model to classify pictures of flowers, reusing a pretrained Xception model. First, let’s load the dataset using TensorFlow Datasets:

Note that you can get information about the dataset by setting with_info=True. Here, we get the dataset size and the names of the classes. Unfortunately, there is only a “train” dataset, no test set or validation set, so we need to split the training set. The TF Datasets project provides an API for this. For example, let’s take the first 10% of the dataset for testing, the next 15% for validation, and the remaining 75% for training:

Next we must preprocess the images. The CNN expects 224 × 224 images, so we need to resize them. We also need to run the image through Xception’s preprocess_input() function:

Let’s apply this preprocessing function to all 3 datasets, and let’s also shuffle & repeat the training set, and add batching & prefetching to all datasets:

If you want to perform some data augmentation, you can just change the preprocessing function for the training set, adding some random transformations to the training images. For example, use tf.image.random_crop() to randomly crop the images, use tf.image.random_flip_left_right() to randomly flip the images horizontally, and so on (see the code for an example).

Next let’s load an Xception model, pretrained on ImageNet. We exclude the top of the network (by setting include_top=False): this excludes the global average pooling layer and the dense output layer. We then add our own global average pooling layer, based on the output of the base model, followed by a dense output layer with 1 unit per class, using the softmax activation function. Finally, we create the Keras Model:

It’s usually a good idea to freeze the weights of the pretrained layers, at least at the beginning of training:

Note: Since our model uses the base model’s layers directly, rather than the base_model object itself, setting base_model.trainable=False would have no effect.

Finally, we can compile the model and start training:

After training the model for a few epochs, its validation accuracy should reach about 75–80%, and stop making much progress. This means that the top layers are now pretty well trained, so we are ready to unfreeze all layers (or you could try unfreezing just the top ones), and continue training (don’t forget to compile the model when you freeze or unfreeze layers). This time we use a much lower learning rate to avoid damaging the pretrained weights:

It will take a while, but this model should reach around 95% accuracy on the test set. With that, you can start training amazing image classifiers! But there’s more to computer vision than just classification. For example, what if you also want to know where the flower is in the picture? Let’s look at this now.

Classification and Localization

Localizing an object in a picture can be expressed as a regression task to predict a bounding box around the object, a common approach is to predict the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the object’s center, as well as its height and width. This means we have 4 numbers to predict. It does not require much change to the model, we just need to add a second dense output layer with 4 units (typically on top of the global average pooling layer), and it can be trained using the MSE loss:

But now we have a problem: the flowers dataset does not have bounding boxes around the flowers. So we need to add them ourselves. This is often one of the hardest and most costly part of a Machine Learning project: getting the labels. It’s a good idea to spend time looking for the right tools. To annotate images with bounding boxes, you may want to use an open source image labeling tool like VGG Image Annotator, LabelImg, OpenLabeler or ImgLab, or perhaps a commercial tool like LabelBox or Supervisely. You may also want to consider crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk or CrowdFlower if you have a very large number of images to annotate. However, it is quite a lot of work to setup a crowdsourcing platform, prepare the form to be sent to the workers, to supervise them and ensure the quality of the bounding boxes they produce is good, so make sure it is worth the effort: if there are just a few thousand images to label, and you don’t plan to do this frequently, it may be preferable to do it yourself. Adriana Kovashka wrote a very practical paper about crowdsourcing in Computer Vision, I recommend you check it out, even if you do not plan to use crowdsourcing.

So let’s suppose you obtained the bounding boxes for every image in the flowers dataset (for now we will assume there is a single bounding box per image), you then need to create a dataset whose items will be batches of preprocessed images along with their class labels and their bounding boxes. Each item should be a tuple of the form: (images, (class_labels, bounding_boxes)). Then you are ready to train your model!

Tip: The bounding boxes should be normalized so that the horizontal and vertical coordinates, as well as the height and width all range from 0 to 1. Also, it is common to predict the square root of the height and width rather than the height and width directly: this way, a 10 pixel error for a large bounding box will not be penalized as much as a 10 pixel error for a small bounding box.

The MSE often works fairly well as a cost function to train the model, but it is not a great metric to evaluate how well the model can predict bounding boxes. The most common metric for this is the Intersection over Union (IoU): it is the area of overlap between the predicted bounding box and the target bounding box, divided by the area of their union (see below image). In tf.keras, it is implemented by the tf.keras.metrics.MeanIoU class.

Intersection over Union (IoU) Metric for Bounding Boxes

Classifying and localizing a single object is nice, but what if the images contain multiple objects (as is often the case in the flowers dataset)?

Object Detection

The task of classifying and localizing multiple objects in an image is called object detection. Until a few years ago, a common approach was to take a CNN that was trained to classify and locate a single object, then slide it across the image, as shown in below image. In this example, the image was chopped into a 6 × 8 grid, and we show a CNN (the thick black rectangle) sliding across all 3 × 3 regions. When the CNN was looking at the top left of the image, it detected part of the left-most rose, and then it detected that same rose again when it was first shifted one step to the right. At the next step, it started detecting part of the top-most rose, and then it detected it again once it was shifted one more step to the right. You would then continue to slide the CNN through the whole image, looking at all 3 × 3 regions. Moreover, since objects can have varying sizes, you would also slide the CNN across regions of different sizes. For example, once you are done with the 3 × 3 regions, you might want to slide the CNN across all 4 × 4 regions as well.

Detecting Multiple Objects by Sliding a CNN Across the Image

This technique is fairly straightforward, but as you can see it will detect the same object multiple times, at slightly different positions. Some post-processing will then be needed to get rid of all the unnecessary bounding boxes. A common approach for this is called non-max suppression:

  • First, you need to add an extra objectness output to your CNN, to estimate the probability that a flower is indeed present in the image (alternatively, you could add a “no-flower” class, but this usually does not work as well). It must use the sigmoid activation function and you can train it using the “binary_crossentropy” loss. Then just get rid of all the bounding boxes for which the objectness score is below some threshold: this will drop all the bounding boxes that don’t actually contain a flower.
  • Second, find the bounding box with the highest objectness score, and get rid of all the other bounding boxes that overlap a lot with it (e.g., with an IoU greater than 60%). For example, in above image, the bounding box with the max objectness score is the thick bounding box over the top-most rose (the objectness score is represented by the thickness of the bounding boxes). The other bounding box over that same rose overlaps a lot with the max bounding box, so we will get rid of it.
  • Third, repeat step two until there are no more bounding boxes to get rid of.

This simple approach to object detection works pretty well, but it requires running the CNN many times, so it is quite slow. Fortunately, there is a much faster way to slide a CNN across an image: using a Fully Convolutional Network.

Fully Convolutional Networks (FCNs)

The idea of FCNs was first introduced in a 2015 paper by Jonathan Long, for semantic segmentation (the task of classifying every pixel in an image according to the class of the object it belongs to). They pointed out that you could replace the dense layers at the top of a CNN by convolutional layers. To understand this, let’s look at an example: suppose a dense layer with 200 neurons sits on top of a convolutional layer that outputs 100 feature maps, each of size 7 × 7 (this is the feature map size, not the kernel size). Each neuron will compute a weighted sum of all 100 × 7 × 7 activations from the convolutional layer (plus a bias term). Now let’s see what happens if we replace the dense layer with a convolution layer using 200 filters, each 7 × 7, and with VALID padding. This layer will output 200 feature maps, each 1 × 1 (since the kernel is exactly the size of the input feature maps and we are using VALID padding). In other words, it will output 200 numbers, just like the dense layer did, and if you look closely at the computations performed by a convolutional layer, you will notice that these numbers will be precisely the same as the dense layer produced. The only difference is that the dense layer’s output was a tensor of shape [batch size, 200] while the convolutional layer will output a tensor of shape [batch size, 1, 1, 200].

Tip: To convert a dense layer to a convolutional layer, the number of filters in the convolutional layer must be equal to the number of units in the dense layer, the filter size must be equal to the size of the input feature maps, and you must use VALID padding. The stride may be set to 1 or more, as we will see shortly.

Why is this important? Well, while a dense layer expects a specific input size (since it has one weight per input feature), a convolutional layer will happily process images of any size (however, it does expect its inputs to have a specific number of channels, since each kernel contains a different set of weights for each input channel). Since an FCN contains only convolutional layers (and pooling layers, which have the same property), it can be trained and executed on images of any size!

For example, suppose we already trained a CNN for flower classification and localization. It was trained on 224 × 224 images and it outputs 10 numbers: outputs 0 to 4 are sent through the softmax activation function, and this gives the class probabilities (one per class); output 5 is sent through the logistic activation function, and this gives the objectness score; outputs 6 to 9 do not use any activation function, and they represent the bounding box’s center coordinates, and its height and width. We can now convert its dense layers to convolutional layers. In fact, we don’t even need to retrain it, we can just copy the weights from the dense layers to the convolutional layers! Alternatively, we could have converted the CNN into an FCN before training.

Now suppose the last convolutional layer before the output layer (also called the bottleneck layer) outputs 7 × 7 feature maps when the network is fed a 224 × 224 image (see the left side of below image). If we feed the FCN a 448 × 448 image (see the right side of below image), the bottleneck layer will now output 14 × 14 feature maps. Since the dense output layer was replaced by a convolutional layer using 10 filters of size 7 × 7, VALID padding and stride 1, the output will be composed of 10 features maps, each of size 8 × 8 (since 14–7 + 1 = 8). In other words, the FCN will process the whole image only once and it will output an 8 × 8 grid where each cell contains 10 numbers (5 class probabilities, 1 objectness score and 4 bounding box coordinates). It’s exactly like taking the original CNN and sliding it across the image using 8 steps per row and 8 steps per column: to visualize this, imagine chopping the original image into a 14 × 14 grid, then sliding a 7 × 7 window across this grid: there will be 8 × 8 = 64 possible locations for the window, hence 8 × 8 predictions. However, the FCN approach is much more efficient, since the network only looks at the image once. In fact, You Only Look Once (YOLO) is the name of a very popular object detection architecture!

A Fully Convolutional Network Processing a Small Image (left) and a Large One (right)

You Only Look Once (YOLO)

YOLO is an extremely fast and accurate object detection architecture proposed by Joseph Redmon in a 2015 paper, and subsequently improved in 201627 (YOLOv2) and in 201828 (YOLOv3). It is so fast that it can run in realtime on a video (check out this nice demo).

YOLOv3’s architecture is quite similar to the one we just discussed, but with a few important differences:

  • First, it outputs 5 bounding boxes for each grid cell (instead of just 1), and each bounding box comes with an objectness score. It also outputs 20 class probabilities per grid cell, as it was trained on the PASCAL VOC dataset, which contains 20 classes. That’s a total of 45 numbers per grid cell (5 * 4 bounding box coordinates, plus 5 objectness scores, plus 20 class probabilities).
  • Second, instead of predicting the absolute coordinates of the bounding box centers, YOLOv3 predicts an offset relative to the coordinates of the grid cell, where (0, 0) means the top left of that cell, and (1, 1) means the bottom right. For each grid cell, YOLOv3 is trained to predict only bounding boxes whose center lies in that cell (but the bounding box itself generally extends well beyond the grid cell). YOLOv3 applies the logistic activation function to the bounding box coordinates to ensure they remain in the 0 to 1 range.
  • Third, before training the neural net, YOLOv3 finds 5 representative bounding box dimensions, called anchor boxes (or bounding box priors): it does this by applying the K-Means algorithm to the height and width of the training set bounding boxes. For example, if the training images contain many pedestrians, then one of the anchor boxes will likely have the dimensions of a typical pedestrian. Then when the neural net predicts 5 bounding boxes per grid cell, it actually predicts how much to rescale each of the anchor boxes. For example, suppose one anchor box is 100 pixels tall and 50 pixels wide, and the network predicts, say, a vertical rescaling factor of 1.5 and a horizontal rescaling of 0.9 (for one of the grid cells), this will result in a predicted bounding box of size 150 × 45 pixels. To be more precise, for each grid cell and each anchor box, the network predicts the log of the vertical and horizontal rescaling factors. Having these priors makes the network more likely to predict bounding boxes of the appropriate dimensions, and it also speeds up training since it will more quickly learn what reasonable bounding boxes look like.
  • Fourth, the network is trained using images of different scales: every few batches during training, the network randomly chooses a new image dimension (from 330 × 330 to 608 × 608 pixels). This allows the network to learn to detect objects at different scales. Moreover, it makes it possible to use YOLOv3 at different scales: the smaller scale will be less accurate but faster than the larger scale, so you can choose the right tradeoff for your use case.

There are a few more innovations you might be interested in, such as the use of skip connections to recover some of the spatial resolution that is lost in the CNN (we will discuss this shortly when we look at semantic segmentation). Moreover, in the 2016 paper, the authors introduce the YOLO9000 model that uses hierarchical classification: the model predicts a probability for each node in a visual hierarchy called Word‐ Tree. This makes it possible for the network to predict with high confidence that an image represents, say, a dog, even though it is unsure what specific type of dog it is. So I encourage you to go ahead and read all three papers: they are quite pleasant to read, and it is an excellent example of how Deep Learning systems can be incrementally improved.

Mean Average Precision (mAP)

A very common metric used in object detection tasks is the mean Average Precision (mAP). “Mean Average” sounds a bit redundant, doesn’t it? To understand this metric, let’s go back to two classification metrics precision and recall. Remember the tradeoff: the higher the recall, the lower the precision. You can visualize this in a Precision/Recall curve (see below image). To summarize this curve into a single number, we could compute its Area Under the Curve (AUC). But note that the Precision/Recall curve may contain a few sections where precision actually goes up when recall increases, especially at low recall values (you can see this at the top left of below image). This is one of the motivations for the mAP metric.

Precision/Recall curve

Suppose the classifier has a 90% precision at 10% recall, but a 96% precision at 20% recall: there’s really no tradeoff here: it simply makes more sense to use the classifier at 20% recall rather than at 10% recall, as you will get both higher recall and higher precision. So instead of looking at the precision at 10% recall, we should really be looking at the maximum precision that the classifier can offer with at least 10% recall. It would be 96%, not 90%. So one way to get a fair idea of the model’s performance is to compute the maximum precision you can get with at least 0% recall, then 10% recall, 20%, and so on up to 100%, and then calculate the mean of these maximum precisions. This is called the Average Precision (AP) metric. Now when there are more than 2 classes, we can compute the AP for each class, and then compute the mean AP (mAP). That’s it!

However, in an object detection systems, there is an additional level of complexity: what if the system detected the correct class, but at the wrong location (i.e., the bounding box is completely off)? Surely we should not count this as a positive prediction. So one approach is to define an IOU threshold: for example, we may consider that a prediction is correct only if the IOU is greater than, say, 0.5, and the predicted class is correct. The corresponding mAP is generally noted mAP@0.5 (or mAP@50%, or sometimes just AP50). In some competitions (such as the Pascal VOC challenge), this is what is done. In others (such as the COCO competition), the mAP is computed for different IOU thresholds (0.50, 0.55, 0.60, …, 0.95), and the final metric is the mean of all these mAPs (noted AP@[.50:.95] or AP@[.50:0.05:.95]). Yes, that’s a mean mean average.

Several YOLO implementations built using TensorFlow are available on github, some with pretrained weights. At the time of writing, they are based on TensorFlow 1, but by the time you read this, TF 2 implementations will certainly be available. Moreover, other object detection models are available in the TensorFlow Models project, many with pretrained weights, and some have even been ported to TF Hub, making them extremely easy to use, such as SSD and Faster-RCNN, which are both quite popular. SSD is also a “single shot” detection model, quite similar to YOLO, while Faster RCNN is more complex: the image first goes through a CNN, and the output is passed to a Region Proposal Network (RPN) which proposes bounding boxes that are most likely to contain an object, and a classifier is run for each bounding box, based on the cropped output of the CNN.

The choice of detection system depends on many factors: speed, accuracy, available pretrained models, training time, complexity, etc. The papers contain tables of metrics, but there is quite a lot of variability in the testing environments, and the technologies evolve so fast that it is difficulty to make a fair comparison that will be useful for most people and remain valid for more than a few months.

Great! So we can locate objects by drawing bounding boxes around them. But perhaps you might want to be a bit more precise. Let’s see how to go down to the pixel level.

Semantic Segmentation

In semantic segmentation, each pixel is classified according to the class of the object it belongs to (e.g., road, car, pedestrian, building, etc.), as shown in below image. Note that different objects of the same class are not distinguished. For example, all the bicycles on the right side of the segmented image end up as one big lump of pixels. The main difficulty in this task is that when images go through a regular CNN, they gradually lose their spatial resolution (due to the layers with strides greater than 1): so a regular CNN may end up knowing that there’s a person in the image, somewhere in the bottom left of the image, but it will not be much more precise than that.

Semantic segmentation

Just like for object detection, there are many different approaches to tackle this problem, some quite complex. However, a fairly simple solution was proposed in the 2015 paper by Jonathan Long, we discussed earlier. They start by taking a pretrained CNN and turning into an FCN, as discussed earlier. The CNN applies a stride of 32 to the input image overall (i.e., if you add up all the strides greater than 1), meaning the last layer outputs feature maps that are 32 times smaller than the input image. This is clearly too coarse, so they add a single upsampling layer that multiplies the resolution by 32. There are several solutions available for upsampling (increasing the size of an image), such as bilinear interpolation, but it only works reasonably well up to ×4 or ×8. Instead, they used a transposed convolutional layer: it is equivalent to first stretching the image by inserting empty rows and columns (full of zeros), then performing a regular convolution (see below image). Alternatively, some people prefer to think of it as a regular convolutional layer that uses fractional strides (e.g., 1/2 in below image). The transposed convolutional layer can be initialized to perform something close to linear interpolation, but since it is a trainable layer, it will learn to do better during training.

Upsampling Using a Transpose Convolutional Layer

Note: In a transposed convolution layer, the stride defines how much the input will be stretched, not the size of the filter steps, so the larger the stride, the larger the output (unlike for convolutional layers or pooling layers).

TensorFlow Convolution Operations

TensorFlow also offers a few other kinds of convolutional layers:

  • keras.layers.Conv1D creates a convolutional layer for 1D inputs, such as time series or text (sequences of letters or words).
  • keras.layers.Conv3D creates a convolutional layer for 3D inputs, such as 3D PET scan.
  • Setting the dilation_rate hyperparameter of any convolutional layer to a value of 2 or more creates an à-trous convolutional layer (“à trous” is French for “with holes”). This is equivalent to using a regular convolutional layer with a filter dilated by inserting rows and columns of zeros (i.e., holes). For example, a 1 × 3 filter equal to [[1,2,3]] may be dilated with a dilation rate of 4, resulting in a dilated filter [[1, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 3]]. This allows the convolutional layer to have a larger receptive field at no computational price and using no extra parameters.
  • tf.nn.depthwise_conv2d() can be used to create a depthwise convolutional layer (but you need to create the variables yourself). It applies every filter to every individual input channel independently. Thus, if there are fn filters and fn′ input channels, then this will output fn × fn′ feature maps.

This solution is okay, but still too imprecise. To do better, the authors added skip connections from lower layers: for example, they upsampled the output image by a factor of 2 (instead of 32), and they added the output of a lower layer that had this double resolution. Then they upsampled the result by a factor of 16, leading to a total upsampling factor of 32 (see below image). This recovered some of the spatial resolution that was lost in earlier pooling layers. In their best architecture, they used a second similar skip connection to recover even finer details from an even lower layer: in short, the output of the original CNN goes through the following extra steps: upscale ×2, add the output of a lower layer (of the appropriate scale), upscale ×2, add the output of an even lower layer, and finally upscale ×8. It is even possible to scale up beyond the size of the original image: this can be used to increase the resolution of an image, which is a technique called super-resolution.

Skip layers recover some spatial resolution from lower layers

Once again, many github repositories provide TensorFlow implementations of semantic segmentation (TensorFlow 1 for now), and you will even find a pretrained instance segmentation model in the TensorFlow Models project. Instance segmentation is similar to semantic segmentation, but instead of merging all objects of the same class into one big lump, each object is distinguished from the others (e.g., it identifies each individual bicycle). At the present, they provide multiple implementations of the Mask R-CNN architecture, which was proposed in a 2017 paper: it extends the Faster R-CNN model by additionally producing a pixel-mask for each bounding box. So not only do you get a bounding box around each object, with a set of estimated class probabilities, you also get a pixel mask that locates pixels in the bounding box that belong to the object.

As you can see, the field of Deep Computer Vision is vast and moving fast, with all sorts of architectures popping out every year, all based on Convolutional Neural Networks. The progress made in just a few years has been astounding, and researchers are now focusing on harder and harder problems, such as adversarial learning (which attempts to make the network more resistant to images designed to fool it), explainability (understanding why the network makes a specific classification), realistic image generation, single-shot learning (a system that can recognize an object after it has seen it just once), and much more. Some even explore completely novel architectures, such as Geoffrey Hinton’s capsule networks.