Original article was published on Autonomous Vehicle Technology
Oxbotica says that autonomous vehicles could face signal black-out caused by “urban canyons” in cities across the world due to the continued growth of skyscrapers and urban infrastructure.
Urban canyons are formed when a street is densely populated by tall buildings on both sides. This can cause the GPS signal at ground level to be degraded or lost, either through satellite signals being obscured, or through multipath effects: a phenomenon where radio waves bounce off surroundings and form multiple signal paths.
According to the company, the number of tall buildings (above 656 ft, or 200 m) has risen by 650% in the last five years, and with this number set to increase again by up to 20% in 2020, the frequency of urban canyons in society is only set to grow.
Interruption of GPS signals, through connection drops or multipath degradation, has potential safety and operational implications for autonomous vehicle systems that rely heavily on satellite-based navigation. And the company states that even a standard three-story building is enough to create signal disruption at ground level. The problem is worse at higher latitudes where satellites tend to be lower in the sky. If no suitable fallbacks are in place, this can affect AVs in these environments, including mass transit shuttles, buses, city delivery vehicles, and cars.
The company also says that canyons are not the only issue with GPS dependency. Sunspots formed during the sun’s 11-year magnetic field cycle cause marked changes in the solar wind. This impacts the upper atmosphere which can in turn interfere with GPS satellites. The solution is to use a mix of radars, cameras, and lasers to navigate and localize rather than relying solely on GPS.
“My first job was in the maritime positioning industry where we were providing alternatives to GPS positioning systems for ships and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico two sun-cycles ago,” said Paul Newman, CTO & Founder at Oxbotica. “Now I’m in conversations about the same problem hitting autonomous vehicles on our roads, and in our mines—on top of being in any number of canyons. While it is harder to figure out your location using vehicle-mounted sensors rather than being told it by GPS, the rewards are many. Entirely new commercial opportunities open up—working underground is no different to a high street, an autonomous shuttle is no different to a haulage truck in a mine. This is a powerful concept and underpins our Universal Autonomy software platform.”
Oxbotica says its technology is able to work independently of any external infrastructure, allowing continuous localization and safe control of its vehicles—even without a GPS signal. Its localization system uses that mixture of radar, laser, and vision sensing to deliver autonomous operation.
The company says that its technology has operated in environments without access to GPS, for example in mines and quarries, inside warehouses, and in “urban canyons” across Europe, Asia, and America.
For more information, visit www.oxbotica.com.