Technological Innovation and its Consequences

Original article was published by Mazhar Iqbal on Artificial Intelligence on Medium


Technological Innovation and its Consequences

If Technology can make, It can break

Evolution of technology

Over time, following the new decade, now it is an ideal time to focus upon the immense technological advancement that humanity has given the shape since the dawn of the new millennium. (Hammond, 2020a) Over time, technology has modernized the world. Particularly, the dynamic inventions of technology like fingerprints, smartwatch, Artificial intelligence has made over lives easier and faster. In the last two decades, technology has made progress by leaps and bound that is due to the most significant inventions of the last millennium. (N. D. says, 2019). Now the matter of the fact is that we are living in a society where people always remain busy seeking knowledge and information. With the help of technology, it is easily accessible for everyone 24/7. People get information via smartphones, public screens, and many other devices. Or people can gather information from different platforms such as Google, YouTube, Amazon, Facebook, and kindle. Furthermore, mobile phones and transport have made life so fast and easy we can approach anyone quickly. (Technology Today — Will Technology Make Us or Break Us?, 2018)

Modifications in technology have impacted in many ways of life. Nowadays, the living standard is completely different from the past. Technological changes have revolutionized many aspects as students can explore by learning the current digital system and their use. Current digital systems such as computers, robots, laptops, and tablets are getting advanced with time. Internet is mainstream to get information from anywhere also provide the facility to buy anything from different platforms and also help to communicate with family and friends. Now things are different from the past. (Australia, n.d.)Moreover, inside thirty years, we will have a mechanical way to make superhuman knowledge. Not long after, human time will be finished. When we consider innovation and what sway it has on our lives we in all probability arrive at various resolutions. Some may figure innovation will take care of each issue in our lives while others dread that innovation will devastate us.

How technology makes our life easy?

Technology has provided us a vast variety of devices in recent decades, like laptops, 3D printer, scanner, and drones. These devices help us in a routine way of life i.e. money transfer, online shopping, and gathering data. With collaboration with social media, it provides different ways of entertainment. Instead, they kept their data secrets and allow full freedom. In the medical field, technology has improved the health status of people. With the usage of different devices, doctors locate the diseases very easily. In the overall communication system, modern technology had changed the whole phenomena of our lives. Before the mobile generation, you needed to search via a dictionary to understand the means of a word. Now you can show the appearance of words up in a dictionary app or quick search the Internet. Beyond words, you can search for nearly something on the Internet the use of search engines like Google and Bing. There is no denying that the destiny of the era will retain to revolutionize our lives. In a few years, driverless motors can be the norm for all people, and robots may be familiar in factories. The future generation is sure to transform our lives in incredible methods. However, right here we highlight that many not unusual approaches era is converting our lives today.

Innovation in the last 2 Decades

This article explores, in no particular order, 5 of the most significant technological advancements we have made in the last 20 years.

1-Smartphones:

Mobile phones came into existence before the 21st century but advancement came in front of eyes in the last 20 years. With the advent of I phone in June 2007, many companies started work on it. As a result, smartphones changed the whole criteria of life. Today we use mobile for searching browsers, for map navigating, listen to music, play games, and massages with friends. (N. D. says, 2019)

Smartphones are here to stay. Everyone can carry in his pocket due to its size. By using them people can communicate easily, it also helps to complete different tasks. With the advancement of technology, smartphones are playing a significant role in the betterment of life. People are enjoying unlimited apps on smartphones it is interesting to spot more about the packages and use them for undertaking exceptional works in a quick time. People experience prestigious and do no longer feel inferior within society while they’re aware of generation and technological advancements. One of the most important influences of smart telephones in society has been a high-quality boom in social networking. The likes of Face e-book, Google Plus, and Twitter, all have been prepared with their diverse, lovely, and powerful applications for smartphone access. (Gowthami & Kumar, 2016)

Positive Impact of smartphone:

Impact of smartphones on children:

Kids show their curiosity towards technology, they start getting skills at a very young age that make them so broad. It is also necessary for the coming era. It helps the child to adapt to new things in unique ways. Dr. Seuss’s ABC app, for example, looks great on the iPod and sounds awesome too. Quality type of screen learning directly hit a baby’s cognitive and social development.

Impact on social life:

Smartphones have a great impact on social life. It provides privacy and independent status in society. Provide to act as journalists at a specific time to share information with others.it also connects remote friends and families

Positive impact on business:

It allows smooth communication even in far-flung regions and Storage of essential documents. High Security; Easier to Business Presentation; Integration with Business Software; Keeps You Update on Social Media; Save time by using Mobile Payments; Everything is on our Fingertips; Easy to carry out Organizational mission.

Negative impacts:

Negative impact on children: It may affect children’s development of insights, empathy, ways of knowing themselves, and connecting with relationships. Also, toddlers need to be active physically. They should be actively exploring their environment, and not sedentary, getting almost all of the stimulations from the screen, and not building their bodies through physical play.

It may reduce mental development and active participation. It also affects physical condition because of the avidness of natural activities. This is why the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) does not recommend screen time for kids younger than 2. Doctors are involved that over-publicity to screen has an impact on attention span and awareness, as well as the urge for food manipulate. A 2014 study by Children’s Digital Media Center suggests that screen participation act cut out from the active world and child loss their confidence level

Negative impact on Business:

The use of mobile phones in business can sometimes have several drawbacks. Used phones during working hours can decrease the productivity level. It can also upset employees’ work-life balance if they receive calls outside their working hours. Costs; Legal issues and Territories. (Gowthami & Kumar, 2016)

Some organizations put pressure on their employees work from home this situation leads to the worst situation. Because they remain engaged with work through emails, but could not give time to their family. This leads to mental stress and unbalanced life. (Sarwar & Soomro, 2013)

2-Human Genome Project:

In 2013, the human genome project has been completed. This achievement proved quite beneficial in molecular medicine, disease treatment, and microbiology. (The Human Genome Project, n.d.)

In 2012, researchers from different universities contributed to novel research of bacterial gens CRISPER is known as a gene-editing tool. By using this tool researchers can remove the harmful part of genes. This innovation changed the future of medicine. (Hammond, 2020b)

The Human Genome Project

List of the Pros of the Human Genome Project

1. It could help with the diagnosis and prevention of human disease. The research was done to know details about the human body that can help to cure the diseases even that genetic disorder can also repair.

2. It could improve criminal justice proceedings.

The genome of every human being is unique. DNA study was also part of the study. With help of DNA, it is easy to recognize the fingerprint of anyone. This technique is used in forensic to locate the criminal.

List of the Cons of the Human Genome Project

1. It may cause a loss in human diversity. What makes humankind such a solid race is its decent variety. Although assorted variety can have negative segments to it, for example, hereditary deformities or changes, it likewise reinforces us from multiple points of view. Through assorted variety, we increase new viewpoints. We have greater inventiveness.

2. It could develop a trend in “designer” humans. It can also affect the natural reproduction system. People could gain the desirable traits if they would rich then all society would same.

3. Its information could be used to form new weapons. By using this information; it is easy to make the bioweapon that can destroy human life without any civil war.

3-Electric cars

Electric cars are vehicles that don’t need fossil fuels to run but they depend upon electricity. Till the 2000s, it was not introduced in markets for commercial use, after some time was built at large scales. Electric cars such as tesla can be plugged into any socket to charge. (‘Electric Car’, 2020)

Benefits of Electric Cars

1. They’re easier on the environment.

We know that the consumption of fuels leads to the emission of gas that hurts our atmosphere. However, EVs free of exhaust system means it will not harm our environment. This contribution can lead to clear air and a healthier plane.

2. Electricity is cheaper than gasoline.

EVs are less expensive than fuels and gasoline. Americans bear 15 cents per mile due to the gas-powered cars, but EVs productivity is more than gasoline. People can charge their cars in the garage or by installing solar panels can save more money.

3. Maintenance is less frequent and less expensive.

No need for an oil change and also consumption-related maintenance. Break systems don’t stick so quickly as on a conventional car.

Drawbacks of Electric vehicles

Nothing is great, and electric vehicles are no special case. There are a couple of significant elements to consider before leaving all necessary signatures at the dealer.

1. Most EVs have pretty short ranges.

However, EVs are passing through different modifications just because of their range. Most of the models can travel 60 to 100 miles on a full charge, the exception range is 200 to 300 per charge.

2. Recharging can take a while.

It takes 3 to 4 hour for charging, instead of conventional only take 5 to 10 mints. Some EVs also take 15 to 20 mints but for that purpose, there are many kits available.

4. Charging station availability is inconsistent.

EVS is not common everywhere, due to this there are limited charging stations. For example, if someone goes on a long route with their family at some time they need to recharge but there is no charge station so what he will do? With the emergence of EVs, it is necessary to maintain charge stations at a different location. (readers et al., 2017)

4- 3D Printing:

3D printing was started in 1980 but its advancement is done in recent 2 decades due to cheaper manufacturing methods along with an open software system. Now a days 3D printing is used to make whole houses, paint spare parts, manufacturing of goods, automation in industry.

Pros of 3D Printing:

§ Freedom of Design Models: having complex geometry can be easily made with 3D printing which cannot be made by machine and injection molding Lighter, Stronger Parts: Product made with the help of 3D printing are more durable than ordinary one because it is made up of plastic in place of steel or Aluminum. Parts of vehicles are made with the help of 3D printing which makes the car light in weight that makes car fuel-efficient.

§ Waste Reduction: Ordinary machine produces a lot of waste material that was, later on, cut that produces non-recyclable material. 3D printing produces less amount of waste material which leads to a reduction in cost and becomes more economical.

§ Speed: Production capacity along with diversity in size is easily achieved with the help of 3D printing. Production speed is also enhanced due to the latest technology.

§ Cost-effective: The reduction of waste material along with increasing production capacity and production made 3D printing cost-effective.

Cons of 3D Printing

§ Limited Materials

The versatility of material is limited in 3D printing that makes this production method not efficient for all industries. Mostly 3D printers will work with plastic and those who work with metal temperature control is not enough for printing in them.

§ Limited Build Volume

Most 3D printers are made up of small build chambers and any part that is larger than the chambers are molded in parts that will be assembled later on. This will increase the cost as well as increase production time.

§ Post Processing

Post-processing is necessary in most 3D printing cases because larger parts are assembled in post-processing while the smaller one is needed to remove the support material along with the finishing of material. (Thornsberry, 2018)

Future Prospect of Advancement in Technology:

Innovation in technology leads to the eruption of a new era of technology that leads a man to the heights of advancement. Certain is the future technology that amends the future of human mankind.

1. Driverless Cars:

Google declared in August 2012, that their trial of automated vehicles completed and it covered 300,000 miles without an accident. These automated cars were the most famous invention at that time and many car companies decided to manufacture these driverless cars, but still, they are at the experimental stage and would be commercialized in the coming few years. (Dickson, 2020)

Pros:

Economic Benefits:

As these automated vehicles amalgamate with our transport system, it is estimated that only Australia will save millions of dollars by reducing 5% of road accidents through autonomous vehicles where it loses approximately $27 billion per year by road crashes.

Social Benefits — Life-Saving:

It is estimated that 90% of road accidents are caused by humans because of drivers’ over speed, drinking while driving and much other negligence that kill 1.3 million innocent people every year and this will be minimized as driverless cars will run over the roads.

Accessibility for disable persons:

For handicapped and aged people it will be easy to manage these cars because it is no need to have a license or to pass any other driving test to drive it and it will decrease the risk of putting someone in danger.

Quicker Commute Times:

Autonomous cars will have an automatic communication system that will prevent traffic jams, braking issues, and other past problems of traffic. Automated cars will set their constant speed limits and proper distance from other cars to minimize traffic clashes.

People who don’t like driving:

Driving is not an enjoyable and comfortable job for everyone as someone takes it as a harsh responsibility so they avoid as much they can. These automated cars will provide them opportunities to drive without handling the vehicle. So, they can enjoy the pursuits of life like eating, sleeping, and some other activity.

Cons:

Increase of vehicles affecting congestion:

Driverless vehicles will end the restrictions and everyone would be allowed to use these vehicles that will increase the road traffic and will lead towards serious issues.

Hacking or Computer Crashes:

Autonomous cars will also run by computer software or such means that can be a hack at any moment. Such incidents will cause insecurity of passengers because reprogramming of cars will put their system into the access of hackers.

Moral Machine:

Autonomous vehicles are programmed and don’t work like human minds so in emergency conditions it would be difficult to reach for them as a passenger suddenly crosses the road then an automated car will hit him or crash with any other thing while carrying passengers.

Loss of Jobs:

Driverless vehicles are major difficulty to drivers who earn their livelihoods through this profession because these cars are automatic and do not need ant driver. Humans are also necessary to run vehicles for a professional duty because they will not only snatch jobs but they will also distribution systems of goods and other things.

Expenses:

Driverless cars are so expensive and are not easy to afford for a person who has an average income. The cost of these autonomous cars is estimated to upwards of $100–300,000 that is huge for a person who is living a miserable life.

All or Nothing:

All the benefits of autonomous cars are estimated because no practical is performed yet. Driverless cars will be environment friendly or not or they will save money or not are just projection. What the consequences are will be examined after their launch on roads.

2. Virtual and Augmented Reality:

Computers are more advance and powerful enough than the past to examine and control data as well as it is dealing with more convincing functions and their usage. Many software companies like Microsoft, Google, Apple, and Facebook are spending thousands of dollars on improving Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality. These technologies are not only applicable for gaming as people think but they are also appropriate for other fields like 3-D objects. The science-fiction dream of virtual reality is going to become reality soon.

Pros:

· Virtual and augmented reality will make education and learning much easier than the past and will bring people close to the educational institutes that are unreachable while it will also provide interesting and different ways of education.

· Users of virtual reality will observe the virtual environment as they want to see.

Cons:

· Virtual reality is an expensive technology and its pricing range varies from $15 to $1500 and in some cases more than this that is not affordable for everyone.

· Virtual reality does not offer group working because it is based on single-handed work so it is against the slogan to take humanity closer to each other.

3-Drones:

After using military equipment, drones are now in common for commercial and public usage. Drones are now usable for critical issues like to examine natural disasters and survey to inspect infrastructure. Many multinational companies like Google and Amazon are manufacturing drones from home delivery. So, they are rapidly taking place humans for working.

Pros of Drones

Debate on the negative and positive impacts of drones is very important for its over dependency.

Quality Aerial Imaging:

Drones are specially built for taking high-resolution images from distance. These quality images are used to create 3-D models and maps and to examine natural phenomenon on earth.

Precision:

Drones provide précised data and location to help a variety of circumstances like farming. In farming, drones use to spray need for crop and its condition while drones also give us an estimate for crop cost.

Easily Deployable:

Drones are easy to use and anyone can monitor it while sitting in a room and it can also easily deploy at any place where human access is difficult. Drones can fly in any direction and at any speed and any level so they are easy to use in deployment.

Security:

Drones are also engaged in security purposes because they can be easily managed and accessible. They do not only help for security purposes in public gatherings or matches but save time and human energy to secure a much larger area.

Cons of Drones:

As there are many advantages of drones, there are also some negative factors of this aerial traffic.

Legislative Uncertainty:

The legislation is required for unofficial drone flying because it is a risk not only for public privacy but also for the national interest. Many countries are banning unofficial and without license flight of drones but it needs proper legislation at the international level.

Safety:

Safety is also at risk because drones can increase air collision and crashes of air traffic. After all, it is also a chance, if the number of drones increases in air it will grow the risk of the crash of aircraft and airplanes.

Privacy:

Privacy is at high risk as personal issues of people can also be noticed and examine while national security can also be a challenge and secured and protected places can also disclose. (‘Pros & Cons of Drones &Unmanned Aerial Vehicles’, 2018)

3-ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ITS IMPACT ON VARIOUS INDUSTRIES:

AI was established in 1955. From that point forward, it has gone through a few influxes of changes. In the modern era, AI has encountered a recovery since progressions in a lot of information, upgraded PC innovations, and hypothetical understanding. Artificial knowledge has become an indispensable piece of different industries like data innovation, Marketing, medical care, cybersecurity, Art, Military, and so on. Artificial Intelligence utilizes Algorithms to execute an issue or circumstance. A complex Algorithm is based on other less difficult Algorithms. Intelligence is the thing that an individual uses to break down a circumstance dependent on his involvement with a comparative circumstance. The calculation is a lot of express directions that a PC can run. AI algorithms are equipped for the learning process.

Pros:

1-Artificial Intelligence Transforms the Future of Healthcare:

Artificial intelligence has a pivotal role in the healthcare industry. It plays a key role from diagnosis to treatment and prediction of outcome. Expanding the utilization of AI in medical services, the examination mostly focuses on Cancer, CNS, and CVS infections, since they are the main areas which lead to inability and mortality. Nonetheless, chronic diseases like (e.g., type 2 diabetes, IBD. have additionally been getting sufficient attention.

Disease prediction and diagnosis:

Pre-diagnosis would now be able to be accomplished for some conditions by improving the extraction of clinical understanding and taking care of such knowledge into a very much trained and approved system.

Drug discovery and repurposing:

About 25% of all found medications were the consequence of a possibility when drugs were united accidentally Targeted drug system is favored in drugs because of the express component, higher achievement rate, and lower cost when contrasted with traditional blind-ended screening.

3-Application of Artificial Intelligence in Accounting Databases:

The utilization of AI is researched as the premise to alleviate the issues of datasheets of accounting and finance. People don’t comprehend or can’t deal with the electronic datasheets. so AI is used in banking and other organizations to manage datasheets.

3-Heavy industry:

AI robots have gotten normal in hefty businesses and are utilized in occupations that are generally viewed as hazardous for humans. These robots boost effectiveness and production, as they don’t need any break while working. (Applications of Artificial Intelligence & Associated Technologies Jatin Borana )

5-Weather Forecasting:

Nowadays neural systems are utilized for foreseeing climate conditions. Past information is given to the neural system, which investigates information of the past and predicts the future climate conditions. (Applications of Artificial Intelligence & Associated Technologies Jatin Borana).

Education:

Effectiveness of education is increased by the use of artificial intelligence such as online learning is beneficial for distant learning in the condition like COVID-19. It can help in personalization and auto-grading is done with the help of grade scope.

Cons

Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence

As it is always said, every coin has two sides and so does AI.

1. High cost

Artificial intelligence is a complex machine system so it requires a high operational cost.

2. No human replication

Artificial intelligence is a machine learning process but it is not comparable to the human mind in case of adaptation and diversity.

3. No improvement with Experience

Artificial intelligence has a complex learning process that does not learn without the proper mechanism of machine learning. Due to a lack of senses, it doesn’t alter their response according to the situation.

4. Creativity is not the key for AI

The machine is operated on installed software and only works according to the given program so artificial intelligence has a lack of creativity.

5. Unemployment

This one is the riskiest and can have severe effects. If in the future, human beings don’t add to their skills, then in no time, we can see that they will be replaced with machines. (J. P. P. says, 2018)

Ethical Practices in Technology

Many challenges regarding Artificial Intelligence must be address and organizations and other professional companies should find solutions and guidelines for these challenges.

Highlight the Human Lives and Interests behind the Technology:

Technology plays an important role in handling humans’ activities that a human can play itself as a person handles another human’s body and its account the same activity can be performed by advanced technology but the same ethics will apply to it. So, technology will perform human activities side by side with non-human work.

Consider Downstream and Upstream and Lateral) Risks for Technologies:​

Companies release any technology after examining it many times to check their credibility but the risk of their failure does not end because new problems emerge that spoil the advancement. To tackle this threat, companies should develop a mechanism of communication with the system and people that monitor this technology and companies should raise the manufacturing standard by avoiding poor design and configuration systems as well as we should pay attention to downstream and upstream risks.

Avoid Hype and Myths around Technology:

Technology is making the lives of people easy and comfortable but on the other hand, this powerful advancement is highly criticized by some people and they try to create hype against it and to make it suspected. We should avoid this and try to stop this propaganda against technology.

Establish Chains of Ethical Responsibility and Accountability:

To prevent harm and to avoid the risk of failure of technology, there should be an effective mechanism that would make people responsible to stop them from unethical works and if anyone involves in any irresponsible activity, he must be accountable. Apart from accountability, people should realize the sensitivity of this matter and should be responsible to work ethically.

Envision the Technical Ecosystem:

We should focus on the purpose of technology that what is its usage and how it works. We must have complete information about it, its control, its positive and negative impacts, and how it changes our life. This information will help us to deal with technology properly and ethically.

Mind the Gap between User Expectations and Reality:

Sometimes technology creates hype in minds of people and misguides them from reality. But it is not only a reality that is responsible for this; people also consider it much more than its actuality. They must create a divider line between reality and expectations regarding technology.

Conclusion:

Technology makes our life easy and comfortable and gives us a luxurious platform to live like a smartphone that gives us online rostrum to get an education and online shopping. Another technique Human genome project revolutionizes the medical industry. Due to technology, our life is cheaper than the past i.e. the use of EVs. Particularly 3D printers completely changed the concept of manufacturing of the materials. While future advancements and new technologies are more powerful and accessible. There are driverless cars that are going to revolutionized heavy industry and it is a great milestone achieved by human beings. Drones are another achievement that is making our security system, controlling natural disasters and agriculture uncomplicated. Above all Artificial intelligence is the latest technology and the most significant development in human history and with time as it will become more and more advance, the lives of people will become more effortless. As it is clear that everything has cons with its pros, so this technology has also some drawbacks. Smartphone’s excessive use creates a disturbance in human life like lose confidence, lack of effective participation, retard mental health of the children, and more others. The human genome can be used as a bioweapon.

As man is celebrating its advanced technology and its achievement, he is forgetting its cons. Artificial intelligence, drones, and driverless cars will drive humanity towards unemployment, lack of creativity, security issues, absence of morality, and the most important their unethical use. This technology is very much expensive and unaffordable for the common person. Due to this advancement, there is a gap between reality and expectations in the human mind and people are creating hype against it because there is a need for legislation at the international level of its usage and controlling and there must be a mechanism that will make it protective, otherwise the only triumph over this advancement will prove fatal for humanity.

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