The Art of Universal Logic Solving w/ Universal Solvers

Original article can be found here (source): Artificial Intelligence on Medium

The Art of Universal Logic Solving w/ Universal Solvers

Universal logic is the field of logic that studies the common features of all logical systems, aiming to be to logic what universal algebra is to algebra. A number of approaches to universal logic have been proposed since the twentieth century, using model theoretic, and categorical approaches.

What is First Order Logic?

Basic Elements of First Order Logic

First order logic assumes that the world contains objects, relations and functions. Constant symbols, variables and function symbols are used to build terms, while quantifiers and predicate symbols are used to build the sentences.

Algorithms for Solving First Order Logic

  • Inference
  • Resolution
  • Unification
  • Forward Chaining
  • Backward Chaining

Applications of First Order Logic

  • Knowledge Engineering
  • Probabilistic Reasoning

What is Higher Order Logic?

What is a Theory?

A collection of ‘logical’ statements written in Propositional Logic (not being discussed here), First Order Logic or Higher Order Logic is called a theory.

The biggest problem is in being able to prove or disprove a theory.

Side Note: Higher Order Logic is The Most Expressive, BUT Not Decidable and Not Complete. -[1]

The Millennium Breakthrough

We have been able to create Universal Solvers with use and solve Universal Logic which is Higher Order Logic and we have made the solvers 100% Decidable and 100% Complete.

This is a Millennium Breakthrough in Automated Reasoning. And the completion of the work started by Aristotle.

What is Automated Theorem Proving?

Automated theorem proving (also known as ATP or automated deduction) is a subfield of automated reasoning and mathematical logic dealing with proving mathematical theorems by computer programs. Automated reasoning over mathematical proof was a major impetus for the development of computer science.

We have hence reinvented Computer Science, Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence, Philosophy, Languages etc.


Why are we harping about universal logic and universal solvers? Obviously we are the least interested in literature surveys and theory.

Answer: At Automatski our Logic Solvers use and solve Universal Logic. And we have already proven P = NP in 1990’s.

So now we have a class of algorithms which deliver an entire class of solvers for use in universal logic solving.

The second requirement to achieving AGI is to make Universal Solvers which Use and Solve Universal Logic.

Time to light a cigar…

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