Original article was published on Artificial Intelligence on Medium
You want to start a Ph.D.? think twice.
It is not my article I am just reposting it cuz I really want you to read this, it is the best article I’ve read in my entire research for the PhD journey.
1. Actively seek out information about Ph.D. programs
Depending on your undergraduate institution, there may be more or less support to guide you in selecting a Ph.D. program — but there is generally much less than when you applied to college.
On the website of my physics department, I found a page written by one of my professors, which listed graduate school options in physics and engineering along with resources to consult. As far as I know, my career center did not send out much information about Ph.D. programs. Only after applying to programs did I find out that my undergraduate website had a link providing general information applicable to most Ph.D. programs. This is the kind of information that is available all over the Internet.
So don’t wait for your career center or department to lay out a plan for you. Actively seek it out from your career center counselors, your professors, the Internet — and especially from alumni from your department who are in or graduated from your desired Ph.D. program. First-hand experiences will almost always trump the knowledge you get second-hand.
2. A Ph.D. program is not simply a continuation of your undergraduate program
Many students don’t internalize this idea until they have jumped head-first into a Ph.D. program. The goal is not to complete an assigned set of courses as in an undergraduate program, but to develop significant and original research in your area of expertise. You will have required courses to take, especially if you do not have a master’s degree yet, but these are designed merely to compliment your research and provide a broad and deep knowledge base to support you in your research endeavors.
At the end of your Ph.D. program, you will be judged on your research, not on how well you did in your courses. Grades are not critical as long as you maintain the minimum GPA requirement, and you should not spend too much time on courses at the expense of research projects. Graduate courses tend to be designed to allow you to take away what you will find useful to your research more than to drill a rigid set of facts and techniques into your brain.
3. Take a break between your undergraduate education and a Ph.D. program.
You are beginning your senior year of college, and your classmates are asking you if you are applying to graduate school. You think to yourself, “Well, I like studying this topic and the associated research, and I am going to need a Ph.D. if I want to be a professor or do independent research, so I might as well get it done as soon as possible.” But are you certain about the type of research you want to do? Do you know where you want to live for the next five years? Are you prepared to stay in an academic environment for nine years straight?
Many people burn out or end up trudging through their Ph.D. program without a thought about what lies outside of or beyond it. A break of a year or two or even more may be necessary to gain perspective. If all you know is an academic environment, how can you compare it to anything else? Many people take a job for five or more years before going back to get their Ph.D.
It is true though that the longer you stay out of school, the harder it is to go back to an academic environment with lower pay and a lack of set work hours. A one-year break will give you six months or so after graduation before Ph.D. applications are due. A two-year gap might be ideal to provide time to identify your priorities in life and explore different areas of research without having school work or a thesis competing for your attention.
Getting research experience outside of a degree program can help focus your interests and give you a leg up on the competition when you finally decide to apply. It can also help you determine whether you will enjoy full-time research or if you might prefer an alternative career path that still incorporates science, for example, in policy, consulting, or business — or a hybrid research job that combines scientific and non-scientific skills.
I will be forever grateful that I chose to do research in a non-academic environment for a year between my undergraduate and Ph.D. programs. It gave me the chance to get a feel for doing nothing but research for a full year. Working at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in the Space Division, I was the manager of an optics lab, performing spectroscopic experiments on rocks and minerals placed in a vacuum chamber. While my boss determined the overall experimental design, I was able to make my own suggestions for experiments and use my own discretion on how to perform them. I presented this research at two national conferences as well — a first for me. I was also able to learn about other research being performed there, determine which projects excited me the most, and thus narrow down my criteria for a Ph.D. program.
4. Your current area of study does not dictate what you have to study in graduate school.
You might be studying the function and regulation of membrane proteins or doing computational analysis of the conductivity of different battery designs, but that doesn’t mean your Ph.D. project must revolve around similar projects. The transition between college or another research job to a Ph.D. program is one of the main transitions in your life when it is perfectly acceptable to completely change research areas.
If you are doing computation, you may want to switch to lab-based work or vice versa. If you are working in biology but have always had an interest in photonics research, now is the time to try it out. You may find that you love the alternative research and devote your Ph.D. to it, you might hate it and fall back on your previous area of study — or you may even discover a unique topic that incorporates both subjects.
One of the best aspects of the Ph.D. program is that you can make the research your own. Remember, the answer to the question “Why are you doing this research?” should not be “Well, because it’s what I’ve been working on for the past few years already.”While my undergraduate research was in atomic physics, I easily transitioned into applied physics and materials science for my Ph.D. program and was able to apply much of what I learned as an undergraduate to my current research. If you are moving from the sciences to a non-scientific field such as social sciences or humanities, this advice can still apply, though the transition is a bit more difficult and more of a permanent commitment.
5. Make sure the Ph.D. program has a variety of research options, and learn about as many research groups as possible in your first year.
Even if you believe you are committed to one research area, you may find that five years of such work is not quite what you expected. As such, you should find a Ph.D. program where the professors are not all working in the same narrowly focused research area. Make sure there are at least three professors working on an array of topics you could imagine yourself working on.
In many graduate programs, you are supposed to pick a research advisor before even starting. But such arrangements often do not work out, and you may be seeking a new advisor before you know it. That’s why many programs give students one or two semesters to explore different research areas before choosing a permanent research advisor.
In your first year, you should explore the research of a diverse set of groups. After touring their labs, talking to the students, or sitting in on group meetings, you may find that this group is the right one for you.
In addition, consider the importance of who your research advisor will be. This will be the person you interact with regularly for five straight years and who will have a crucial influence on your research. Do you like their advising style? Does their personality mesh with yours? Can you get along? Of course, the research your advisor works on is critical, but if you have large disagreements at every meeting or do not get helpful advice on how to proceed with your research, you may not be able to succeed. At the very least, you must be able to handle your advisor’s management of the lab and advising style if you are going to be productive in your work.
The Harvard program I enrolled in has professors working on research spanning from nanophotonics to energy materials and biophysics, covering my wide range of interests. By spending time in labs and offices informally chatting with graduate students, I found an advisor whose personality and research interests meshed very well with me. Their genuine enthusiasm for this advisor and their excitement when talking about their research was the best input I could have received.
6. Location is more important than you think — but name recognition is not.
The first consideration in choosing a PhD program should be, “Is there research at this university that I am passionate about?” After all, you will have to study this topic in detail for four or more years. But when considering the location of a university, your first thought should not be, “I’m going to be in the lab all the time, so what does it matter if I’m by the beach, in a city, or in the middle of nowhere.”
Contrary to popular belief, you will have a life outside of the lab, and you will have to be able to live with it for four or more years. Unlike when you were an undergraduate, your social and extracurricular life will revolve less around the university community, so the environment of the surrounding area is important. Do you need a city atmosphere to be productive? Or is your ideal location surrounded by forests and mountains or by a beach? Is being close to your family important? Imagine what it will be like living in the area during the times you are not doing research; consider what activities will you do and how often will you want to visit family.
While many of the Ph.D. programs that accepted me had a research that truly excited me, the only place I could envision living for five or more years was Boston, as the city I grew up near and whose environment and culture I love, and to be close to my family.
While the location is more important than you think, the reputation and prestige of the university are not. In graduate school, the reputation of the individual department you are joining — and sometimes even the specific research group you work in — are more important. There, you will develop research collaborations and professional connections that will be crucial during your program and beyond. When searching for a job after graduation, other scientists will look at your specific department, the people you have worked with, and the research you have done.
7. Those time management skills you developed in college? Develop them further.
After surviving college, you may think you have mastered the ability to squeeze in your coursework, extracurricular activities, and even some sleep. In a Ph.D. program, time management reaches a whole new level. You will not only have lectures to attend and homework to do. You will have to make time for your research, which will include spending extended periods of time in the lab, analyzing data, and scheduling time with other students to collaborate on research.
Also, you will most likely have to teach for a number of semesters, and you will want to attend any seminar that may be related to your research or that just peak your interest. To top it all off, you will still want to do many of those extracurricular activities you did as an undergraduate. While in the abstract, it may seem simple enough to put this all into your calendar and stay organized, you will find quickly enough that the one hour you scheduled for a task might take two or three hours, putting you behind on everything else for the rest of the day or forcing you to cut other planned events. Be prepared for schedules to go away, and be willing to sacrifice certain activities. For some, this might be sleep; for others, it might be an extracurricular activity or a few seminars they were hoping to attend. In short, don’t panic when things don’t go according to plan; anticipate possible delays, and be ready to adapt.
8. Expect to learn research skills on the fly — or take advantage of the training your department or career center offers.
This may be the first time you will have to write fellowship or grant proposals, write scientific papers, attend conferences, present your research to others, or even peer-review scientific manuscripts. From my experience, very few college students or even Ph.D. students receive formal training on how to perform any of these tasks. Usually, people follow by example. But this is not always easy and can be quite aggravating sometimes. So seek out talks or interactive programs offered by your department or career center. The effort will be well worth it when you realize you’ve become quite adept at quickly and clearly explaining your research to others and at outlining scientific papers and grant proposals.
Alternatively, ask a more experienced graduate student or your advisor for advice on these topics. In addition, be prepared for a learning curve when learning all the procedures and processes of the group you end up working in. There may be many new protocols to master, whether they involve synthesizing chemicals, growing bacterial cells, or aligning mirrors on an optical table. In addition, the group may use programming languages or data analysis software you are unfamiliar with.
Don’t get discouraged but plan to spend extra effort getting used to these procedures and systems. After working with them regularly, they will soon become second nature. When I first started my job at Johns Hopkins, I felt overwhelmed by all the intricacies of the experiment and definitely made a few mistakes, including breaking a number of optical elements. But by the end of my year there, I had written an updated protocol manual for the modifications I had made to the experimental procedures and was the “master” passing on my knowledge to the next person taking the job.
9. There are no real breaks.
In a stereotypical “9-to-5” job, when the workday is over or the weekend arrives, you can generally forget about your work. And a vacation provides an even longer respite. But in a Ph.D. program, your schedule becomes “whenever you find time to get your work done.” You might be in the lab during regular work hours or you might be working until 10 p.m. or later to finish an experiment. And the only time you might have available to analyze data might be at 1 a.m. Expect to work during part of the weekend, too. Graduate students do go on vacations but might still have to do some data analysis or a literature search while away.
As a Ph.D. student, it might be hard to stop thinking about the next step in an experiment or that data sitting on your computer or that paper you were meaning to start. While I imagine some students can bifurcate their minds between graduate school life and everything else, that’s quite hard for many of us to do. No matter what, my research lies somewhere in the back of my head. In short, your schedule is much more flexible as a Ph.D. student, but as a result, you never truly take a break from your work.
While this may seem like a downer, remember that you should have a passion for the research you work on (most of the time), so you should be excited to think up new experiments or different ways to consider the data you have collected. Even when I’m lying in bed about to fall asleep, I am sometimes ruminating about aspects of my experiment I could modify or what information I could do a literature search on to gain new insights. A Ph.D. program is quite the commitment and rarely lives up to expectations — but it is well worth the time and effort you will spend for something that truly excites you.
Andy Greenspon (@andyman344) is a first-year Ph.D. student in Applied Physics at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. Prior to that, he worked in the Space Research and Exploration group at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) for a year. He grew up in Newton, Massachusetts, and received a BA in physics from Amherst College.
link for the article : https://www.elsevier.com/connect/9-things-you-should-consider-before-embarking-on-a-phd